Group portrait of titled Igbo men, 1900s

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Group portrait of Igbo men with ceremonial attire, 1900-1915.
Group portrait of Igbo men with ceremonial attire, 1900-1915. © The Trustees of the British Museum

This photograph, taken between 1900 and 1915, shows a group portrait of male adults, with the front row seated and the back row standing. The men are dressed in traditional Igbo robes, headgear, and feathers, holding ceremonial staffs. The central figure is accompanied by a child holding a ceremonial object. A cloth is spread on the ground beneath them. Mud walls, a thatched gate, and shelters are visible in the background.

The photograph shows a group of titled men, possibly members of the prestigious Nze na Ozo society. The image highlights their traditional attire, which includes symbolic robes, headgear, and the iconic red caps known as okpu mme. The presence of ceremonial staffs and ivory bracelets signifies their high status.

The Symbolism of the Red Cap

The red cap, or okpu mme, holds profound spiritual significance among the Igbo people. Originating from areas associated with the Nze na Ozo society, it is deeply connected to the historic Umunri hegemony in the north-central Igbo area. The cap signifies a person’s status within society, particularly linked to priesthood and spiritual leadership.

The red cap is often misunderstood as a symbol of chieftaincy due to colonial influences. However, its roots are deeply entrenched in Igbo spiritual and cultural practices. The term “chief” emerged during colonial times and does not accurately reflect the traditional roles associated with the red cap.

The Nze na Ozo Society

The Nze na Ozo society is one of the most prestigious traditional institutions among the Igbo people. Members of this society, known as Nze and Ozo, hold significant religious and social roles. The Nze title is the first step. They are tasked with various spiritual duties, also the maintenance of moral order and the mediation of conflicts.

The Ozo title is a higher distinction within the society. Those who achieve this status are revered as spiritual leaders and are responsible for important religious activities. They undertake missions, such as establishing markets, viewed as spiritual tasks. They also handle spiritual issues, including confronting and neutralizing violent deities.

The Red Cap as a Pan-Igbo Symbol

Although the red cap has become a pan-Igbo symbol, its origins and traditional significance remain localized. In its area of origin, wearers of the red cap are required to be titled members of the Nze na Ozo society. This requirement often leads to scrutiny of those who wear the cap outside these traditional areas. The cap’s association with the deity Agbala, which represents fire, underscores its spiritual importance.

In many areas, especially among the western Igbo, the red cap is known as okpu ododo. The cap’s adoption across various Igbo regions reflects a blend of tradition and modern identity. However, its deep-rooted significance in areas like the Nri kingdom, where it was originally worn, is often overlooked.

Historical Context and European Influence

There is a debate about the origins of the red cap. Some suggest it may have been influenced by European colonization, similar to the fez used by colonial African troops. However, various studies suggest it is not of European origin. It is possible that the cap was introduced through the trans-Saharan trade routes, which have a history spanning over a thousand years.

The material and design of the red cap may have evolved over time. Initially, it might have been made from different materials, but its symbolic red color has remained consistent, signifying the essence of fire and the powerful deity Agbala.

Cultural and Social Roles of Nze and Ozo

Members of the Nze na Ozo society are respected for their wisdom and spiritual insight. They play crucial roles in the community, such as mediating disputes and maintaining the sacred laws. These roles are not merely ceremonial; they involve deep knowledge of traditional rites and an unwavering commitment to the community’s spiritual well-being.

The Ozo title, in particular, is a significant milestone. To become an Ozo, a candidate must undergo rigorous initiation rites that include both spiritual and physical tests. This process signifies a transition from being a respected community member to becoming a custodian of Igbo traditions and spiritual practices.

The Red Cap in Contemporary Igbo Society

In contemporary times, the red cap has evolved beyond its traditional confines. It is now commonly worn at various cultural events and ceremonies, symbolizing unity and identity among the Igbo people. However, the traditional protocols regarding who can wear the cap still hold in many communities. Elders and titled men often ensure that the cap’s significance is respected, maintaining its sacredness and the dignity of the Nze na Ozo titles.

Despite this evolution, there are areas where the red cap is still viewed with suspicion if worn by those who have not earned the right. This underscores the enduring cultural and spiritual importance of the red cap and its associated titles.

Preserving Igbo Heritage

The traditions of the Nze na Ozo society, along with the symbolism of the red cap, are at risk of being forgotten in the face of modernization and globalization. It is essential to celebrate these traditions to ensure they are passed down to future generations.

Call to Action

What aspects of Igbo culture and tradition do you believe are most at risk of being forgotten? Share your thoughts in the comments below.

Further Reading

To explore more about the Nze na Ozo society and the significance of the red cap, consider this book available on Amazon:

Nri Warriors of Peace by Chikodi Añunobi

Title: Nri Warriors of Peace

Author: Chikodi Añunobi

Publisher: Zenith Press

Publication Date: February 28, 2006

Format: Paperback

Pages: 378

ISBN-10: 0976730308

ISBN-13: 978-0976730309

Language: English


"Nri Warriors of Peace" by Chikodi Añunobi is a captivating novel that delves into the rich history and culture of the Nri kingdom, the cradle of Igbo civilization in Southeastern Nigeria. Añunobi’s debut work is a blend of extensive research and personal experience, offering readers a detailed portrayal of the Nri people and their enduring legacy of peace and spirituality.

Content Summary

Historical Context The novel provides a comprehensive look at the Nri kingdom, known for its long-standing peace and cultural influence in the region. The Nri civilization, which thrived for over a millennium, is depicted through the lives of its people and their interactions with the natural and spiritual worlds.

Character Focus The story centers on two Eze Nri (kings): Igwe Nwadike, an elder statesman beloved by his people, and his successor, Okoye, a successful trader of humble origins. Their reigns are marked by mystical events, societal challenges, and personal struggles, reflecting the complexities of leadership and cultural preservation.

Themes and Messages Añunobi explores themes of honor, treachery, and the consequences of actions, drawing parallels between the Nri civilization and contemporary life. The novel emphasizes the universality of human experience, highlighting how the values and traditions of the Nri can offer insights into modern issues.

Key Features

  • Cultural Richness: Detailed descriptions of Nri rituals, traditions, and daily life, based on Añunobi’s research and personal background.
  • Engaging Storytelling: A narrative that weaves historical facts with compelling character arcs and mystical elements.
  • Educational Value: Provides an accessible introduction to Nri history and culture, making it valuable for both general readers and those interested in African studies.


This book is suitable for readers interested in African history, Igbo culture, and historical fiction. It offers a deep dive into a lesser-known civilization, providing both entertainment and educational value.


  • Well-Researched: Añunobi’s extensive research and personal insights lend authenticity to the story.
  • Rich Narrative: Combines historical detail with engaging storytelling, making it both informative and entertaining.
  • Universal Themes: The novel’s exploration of universal human experiences makes it relatable to a wide audience.


  • Complex Themes: The intertwining of mystical and historical elements might be challenging for some readers to follow.


"Nri Warriors of Peace" by Chikodi Añunobi is a masterful blend of history, culture, and storytelling. It sheds light on the Nri kingdom's significant yet often overlooked contributions to African history. Añunobi’s novel not only entertains but also educates, offering readers a profound understanding of the Nri people and their peaceful legacy.

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Onyeka Nwokike
Onyeka Nwokike

Onyeka Nwokike, a graduate from the University of Nigeria Nsukka and a writer at Igbo Archives, is working to challenge common misconceptions and broaden understanding. He has curated a collection of historical photographs and artifacts for Igbo Archives, which helps to fill the educational gaps left by mainstream media and school curricula. His commitment to the celebration and conservation of Igbo heritage has made Igbo Archives an essential resource, cultivating a strong sense of pride and cultural identity within the Igbo community.

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